House of the Righteous

"A thorough knowledge of the Bible is more valuable than a college education."
~ Theodore Roosevelt
C O N T E N T    
Christian Apologetics Defined   Areas of Christian Apologetics
A Brief History of Christian Apologetics    
The Unchanging Purpose of Christian Apologetics    
Who can be an Apologist?    
The Right Attitude   * Bible
Branches of Christian Apologetics   * Jesus
Reference Books and Resources   * Christianity
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The Right Attitude

The Christian studying and practicing Apologetics must always have a gentle and reverent spirit.

"..sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear."
~ 1 Peter 3:15 (KJV)

"But sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to every one who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence."
~ 1 Peter 3:15 (NASB)

Josh McDowell wrote in his famous book, The Evidence That Demands A Verdict, that the motivation for using the lecture notes it to glorify and magnify Jesus Christ - not to win an argument. (1)


The Apologist’s Evening Prayer

From all my lame defeats and oh! much more
From all the victories that I seemed to score;
From cleverness shot forth on Thy behalf
At which, while angels weep, the audience laugh;
From all my proofs of Thy divinity,
Thou, who wouldst give no sign, deliver me.
Thoughts are but coins. Let me not trust instead
Of Thee, their thin-worn image of Thy head.
From all my thoughts, even from my thoughts of Thee,
O thou fair Silence, fall, and set me free.
Lord of the narrow gate and the needle’s eye,
Take from me all my trumpery lest I die.

~ By C.S. Lewis




“We cannot pander to a man’s intellectual arrogance,
but we must cater to his intellectual integrity” 
~ John Stott

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Branches of Christian Apologetics
Dr. Johnson Pilip
Dr. Saneesh Cherian

Branches of Christian Apologetics (9)
Steven B. Cowen
Five Views on Apologetics (8)
Norman Geisler
Baker Encyclopedia of Apologetics (7)
Ryan Turner
CARM (6)
Kenneth Boa
Roberth M. Bowman
Faith Has Its Reasons (5)

4 Major Branches

5 Methodologies

5 Types

3 Methods

4 Methods

Philosophical / Theological

-R.C. Sproul,
-Norman Geisler, 

-Stephen T. Davis,
-Richard Swinburne

(Arguments and historical evidence)


Classical (Rationalistic)
- Thomas Aquinas
- Norman Geisler

Historical / Legal

-John W. Montgomery
-Clark Pinnock
-Wolfhart Pannenberg

(Evidence to support Christian truth claims)


Evidential (Empirical)
- Joseph Butler
- John W. Montgomery

Rational / Scientific

Cummulative Case Method
-Basil Mitchell
-Paul Feinberg

-C.S. Lewis,
-C. Stephen Evans

(Experience as evidence)


Reformed (Authoritarian)
- John Calvin
- Cornelius Van Til


-Cornelius Van Till,
-Gordon Clark,
-Greg Bahsen,
-Francis Schaeffer

(Historical Evidence as basis)

6 Areas
* Philosophical Apol.
* Theological Apologetics
* Biblical Apologetics
* Scientific Apologetics
* Religion and Cult Apol.
* Other Areas
(History, Sociology, Business, etc.)

Fideism (Intuitive)
- Martin Luther
- Søren Kierkegaard


Reformed Epistemology
-Alvin Plantinga,
-Nicholas Wolterstorff,

-George Mavrodes,
-William Alson

(Defense is founded in basic presuppositions)




“We suggest that this practice of expanding or enriching one apologetic approach by incorporating elements of other approaches is just what apologists should do. We doubt that it is possible, or even desirable, to formulate a “fifth” apologetic system that would wholly combine and thus supersede the four basic approaches. Rather than striving to produce the perfect single apologetic system or method or model that all apologists should use, we think Christians should start from the best approach they know and augment or refine it using whatever they can from other approaches.”  (5)

Apologetics -
“Challenging believers to think and thinkers to believe.”
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1. McDowell, Josh. The Evidence That Demands A Verdict. Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville. 1999
2. Slick, Matthew J. Apologetics. CARM - Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. [Online] 1995-2010. [Cited: November 18, 2010.]

5. Boa, Kenneth D., Bowman Jr., Robert M. Faith Has Its Reasons - An Integrative Approach To Defending Christianity. Colorado Springs : NavPress, 2001.
6. Turner, Ryan. What Is Apologetics? An Outline. CARM - Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. [Online] 119-2010. [Cited: November 19, 2010.]
7. Geisler, Norman L. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Books, 1999.
8. (Editor), Steven B. Cowan. Five View on Apologetics. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House, 2000.
9. Philip, Dr. Johnson C., Cherian, Dr. Saneesh. Branches Of Christian Apologetics. Kochi, India: Calvin Research Group.
10. Philip, Dr. Johnson C., Cherian, Dr. Saneesh. Introduction to Integrated Christian Apologetics. Kochi, India: Calvin Research Group.
11. Wade, Rick. Christian Apologetics - An Introduction. Leadership U. [Online] July 14, 2002. [Cited: November 19, 2010.]
12. [Online] 2010. [Cited: November 10, 2010.]
13. Little, Paul E. Know Why You Believe - A Clear Affirmation for the Reasonableness of the Christian Faith. s.l. : Cook Communications Ministries, 1999.
14. KJV. Scripture taken from the King James Version. Pulbic Domain.
15. NLT. New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible. New Living Translation copyright © 1996 by Tyndale Charitable Trust. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers.


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Reference Books and Resources
Free Books

Christian Handbook of Reason
Insight for Scientists
and Technologists

The book is freely available and can be downloaded in pdf format or read online.
Books Worth Purchasing
Know What You Believe
by Paul E. Little
Know Why You Believe
by Paul E. Little

Baker Encyclopedia of
Christian Apologetics
by Norman L. Geisler

The New Evidence
That Demands A Verdict
by Josh McDowell
Christian Apologetics
by Normal L. Geisler

Faith Has Its Reasons
by Kenneth D. Boa and
Robert M. Bowman Jr.


Read online

Defending Your Faith:
An Introduction to Christian Apologetics
by R.C. Sproul
Handbook of Christian Apologetics
by Peter Kreeft & Ronald K. Tacelli
Free Audio Lectures

Apologetics (TH201)
with Dr. Ron Nash
These 5 lectures are a summary of Dr. Nash's introductory course to Christian Apologetics. They were recorded by Biblical Training in Orlando, Florida during the summer of 2003.

Christian Apologetics
with Dr. Ron Nash (TH301)
This an introductory course to Christian Apologetics. These lectures were given at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, Florida during the fall of 2001.

Resource Websites
Alpha and Omega Ministries
James R. White
Answers In Action
Bob and Gretchen Passantino
Requires a subscription

Apologetics Index
ARC - Apologetics Resource Center
Craig Branch (Director)
British-Israel Church of God's Ministry & Media Website - Apologetics Articles
The Berean Call
by Dave Hunt & T.A. McMahon
Be Thinking
Introductory, Intermediate, and Advanced resources.
CARM - Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry
Matthew J. Slick
David Cox - Free Online Library
Defending. Contending
Defending truth and contending for the Faith while carrying the Light of the Gospel into a world shrouded in darkness
Denver Journal, Denver Seminary
The Divine Evidence
Article Index
Executable Outlines
Mark A. Copeland
Faith Has Its Reasons
by Kenneth D. Boa and Robert M. Bowman, Jr.
God and Science
Evidence for God
God On The Net
Rick Reinckens
Leadership U
Let Us Reason Ministries
Mike Oppenheimer
The One Minute Apologist - You Tube
The One Minute Apologist
- Main Site
Online Christian LIbrary
Apologetics PDF Books
Online Resources
by Answers In Genesis
An evangelical theology for the age to come
by Andrew Perriman
RZIM - Ravi Zacharias International Ministries
Sören Kierkegaard
Biography and Articles
Education and Apologetics Ministry

Top Ten Proofs
Apologetics made simple
Dr. William Lane Craig
Articles, Debates
Windmill Ministries
Christian Apologetics - Evidence for Christianity

Midwest Christian Outreach

Personal Freedom Outreach

Stand to Reason

TruthQuest Institute
(, and

Watchman Fellowship


Apologetics Online

Apologia Report

Christian Answers Net
(, Christian Apologetics (, Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry (,

Christian Research Institute (,

Come Let Us Reason (,

Does God Exist? (,

Probe Ministries (,

Ravi Zacharias International Ministries

Reasoning from the Scriptures (, Southern Evangelical Seminary (Dr. Norman L. Geisler) (, Summit Ministries (www.ChristianAnswers.Net/summit), The Ultimate

Christian Apologetics
/lenardos/page2.htm), and

Xenos Christian Fellowship (






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